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SEC Filings

8-K
FOREST CITY REALTY TRUST, INC. filed this Form 8-K on 12/07/2018
Entire Document
 
EX-3.2

Exhibit 3.2

AMENDED AND RESTATED

BYLAWS

OF

FOREST CITY REALTY TRUST, INC.

(the “Corporation”)

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

Section 1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE. The principal office of the Corporation in the State of Maryland shall be located at such place as the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”) may designate.

Section 2. ADDITIONAL OFFICES. The Corporation may have additional offices, including a principal executive office, at such places as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.

Section 3. RESIDENT AGENT. The resident agent of the Corporation and the agent’s address shall be as set forth in the Articles of Incorporation. The Board of Directors may at any time change the Corporation’s resident agent or address by making the appropriate filing with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation.

Section 4. BOOKS AND RECORDS. The Corporation shall keep and maintain at a minimum:

(a) A stock ledger which contains: (i) the name and address of each of its stockholders; and (ii) the number of shares which the stockholder holds.

(b) Books and records of its accounts and transactions.

(c) Minutes of the meetings of the proceedings of (i) its stockholders; (ii) the Board of Directors; and (iii) any executive or other committee exercising any of the powers of the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1. PLACE. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at the principal executive office of the Corporation or at such other place as shall be set by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting.

Section 2. ANNUAL MEETING. An annual meeting of the stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business within the powers of the Corporation shall be held on a date and at the time set by the Board of Directors. Any proper business may be transacted at the annual meeting of stockholders.


Section 3. SPECIAL MEETINGS. The President or Board of Directors may call special meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of stockholders shall also be called by the Secretary upon the written request of the holders of shares entitled to cast not less than twenty-five percent (25%) of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting. Such request shall state the purpose of such meeting and the matters proposed to be acted on at such meeting. The Secretary shall inform such stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and mailing notice of the meeting and, upon payment to the Corporation by such stockholders of such costs, the Secretary shall give notice to each stockholder entitled to notice of the meeting.

Section 4. NOTICE. Not less than 10 nor more than 90 days before each meeting of stockholders, the Secretary shall give to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting and to each stockholder not entitled to vote who is entitled to notice of the meeting written or printed notice stating the time and place of the meeting and, in the case of a special meeting or as otherwise may be required by any statute, the purpose for which the meeting is called, either by mail, by presenting it to such stockholder personally, by leaving it at the stockholder’s residence or usual place of business or by any other means permitted by the laws of the State of Maryland. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail addressed to the stockholder at the stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid. Any business of the Corporation may be transacted at an annual meeting of stockholders without being specifically designated in the notice, except such business as is required by any statute to be stated in such notice. No business shall be transacted at a special meeting of stockholders except as specifically designated in the notice.

Section 5. ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCT. Every meeting of stockholders shall be conducted by an individual appointed by the Board of Directors to be chairman of the meeting or, in the absence of such appointment, by the President or, in the case of a vacancy in the office or absence of the President, by one of the following officers present at the meeting: the Vice Presidents in their order of rank and seniority, or, in the absence of such officers, a chairman chosen by the stockholders by the vote of a majority of the votes cast by stockholders present in person or by proxy. The Secretary, or, in the Secretary’s absence, an Assistant Secretary, or in the absence of both the Secretary and Assistant Secretaries, a person appointed by the Board of Directors or, in the absence of such appointment, a person appointed by the chairman of the meeting shall act as Secretary. In the event that the Secretary presides at a meeting of the stockholders, an Assistant Secretary, or in the absence of Assistant Secretaries, an individual appointed by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, shall record the minutes of the meeting. The order of business and all other matters of procedure at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined by the chairman of the meeting. The chairman of the meeting may prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and take such action as, in the discretion of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, (a) restricting admission to the time set for the commencement of the meeting; (b) limiting attendance at the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized proxies and other such individuals as the chairman of the meeting may determine; (c) limiting participation at the meeting on any matter to stockholders of record of the Corporation entitled to vote on such matter, their duly authorized proxies and other such individuals as the chairman of the meeting may determine; (d) limiting the time allotted to questions or comments

 

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by participants; (e) maintaining order and security at the meeting; (f) removing any stockholder or any other individual who refuses to comply with meeting procedures, rules or guidelines as set forth by the chairman of the meeting; and (g) recessing or adjourning the meeting to a later date and time and place announced at the meeting. Unless otherwise determined by the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

Section 6. QUORUM. At any meeting of stockholders, the presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting shall constitute a quorum; but this section shall not affect any requirement under any statute or the Articles of Incorporation of the Corporation (as may be amended, modified, supplemented or restated from time to time, the “Charter”) for the vote necessary for the adoption of any measure. If, however, such quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time to a date not more than 120 days after the original record date without notice other than announcement at the meeting. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. The stockholders present either in person or by proxy, at a meeting which has been duly called and convened, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.

Section 7. VOTING. A plurality of all the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to elect a director. Each share may be voted for as many individuals as there are directors to be elected and for whose election the share is entitled to be voted. A majority of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to approve any other matter which may properly come before the meeting, unless more than a majority of the votes cast is required by statute, the Charter, these Bylaws or contract. Unless otherwise provided in the Charter, each outstanding share of the Corporation’s stock, regardless of class, shall be entitled to one vote on each matter submitted to a vote at a meeting of stockholders.

Section 8. PROXIES. A stockholder may cast the votes entitled to be cast by the shares of stock owned of record by the stockholder in person or by proxy executed by the stockholder or by the stockholder’s duly authorized agent in any manner permitted by law. Such proxy or evidence of authorization of such proxy shall be filed with the Secretary before or at the meeting. No proxy shall be valid more than eleven months after its date unless otherwise provided in the proxy. Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of the writing or transmission authorizing another person or persons to act as proxy for a stockholder may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used; provided, however, that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or transmission.

 

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Section 9. CONSENT OF STOCKHOLDERS IN LIEU OF MEETING. Unless otherwise provided in the Charter, any action required or permitted to be taken at any annual or special meeting of the stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock entitled to vote having not less than the minimum number of votes required by Section 2-505 of the Maryland General Corporation Law (including any successor statute, the “MGCL”) and (a) shall be delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Maryland, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded and (b) filed with the records of the stockholders’ meetings. Delivery made to the Corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. Every written consent shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder who signs the consent and no written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within sixty (60) days of the earliest dated consent delivered in the manner required by this Section 9 to the Corporation, written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take action are delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Maryland, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded. An electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder or proxyholder, or by a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder or proxyholder, shall be deemed to be written, signed and dated for the purposes of this Section 9, provided that any such electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the Corporation can determine (a) that the electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder or proxyholder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder or proxyholder and (b) the date on which such stockholder or proxyholder or authorized person or persons transmitted such electronic transmission. The date on which such electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed. Notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given no later than 10 days after the effective time of the action to those stockholders who have not consented in writing and who, if the action had been taken at a meeting, would have been entitled to notice of the meeting if the record date for such meeting had been the date that written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take the action were delivered to the Corporation as provided above in this Section 9.

Section 10. VOTING OF STOCK BY CERTAIN HOLDERS. Stock of the Corporation registered in the name of a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity, if entitled to be voted, may be voted by the president or a vice president, a general partner or trustee thereof, as the case may be, or a proxy appointed by any of the foregoing individuals, unless some other person who has been appointed to vote such stock pursuant to a bylaw or a resolution of the governing body of such corporation or other entity or agreement of the partners of a partnership presents a certified copy of such bylaw, resolution or agreement, in which case such person may vote such stock. Any director or other fiduciary may vote stock registered in his or her name as such fiduciary, either in person or by proxy.

Shares of stock of the Corporation directly or indirectly owned by it shall not be voted at any meeting and shall not be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares entitled to be voted at any given time, unless they are held by it in a fiduciary capacity, in which case they may be voted and shall be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares at any given time.

 

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Section 11. CONTROL SHARE ACQUISITION ACT. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Charter or these Bylaws, Title 3, Subtitle 7 of the MGCL shall not apply to any acquisition by any person of shares of stock of the Corporation. This section may be repealed, in whole or in part, at any time, whether before or after an acquisition of control shares and, upon such repeal, may, to the extent provided by any successor bylaw, apply to any prior or subsequent control share acquisition.

ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 1. GENERAL POWERS. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of its Board of Directors.

Section 2. NUMBER, TENURE AND QUALIFICATIONS. At any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, a majority of the entire Board of Directors may establish, increase or decrease the number of directors, provided that the number thereof shall never be less than the minimum number required by the MGCL nor more than ten (10), and further provided that the tenure of office of a director shall not be affected by any decrease in the number of directors.

Section 3. TERM OF OFFICE. At the first annual meeting of stockholders and at each annual meeting thereafter, the holders of shares of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors shall elect directors to hold office until the next succeeding annual meeting or until the director’s earlier death, resignation, disqualification, or removal. A director shall continue to serve after the expiration of his or her term until his or her successor is elected and qualified.

Section 4. REMOVAL. Any or all of the directors may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally for the election of directors.

Section 5. RESIGNATION. A director may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors, its chair, or the Secretary of the Corporation. A resignation is effective when the notice is given unless the notice states a later effective time or makes resignation effective on the occurrence of an event. Acceptance of the resignation shall not be required to make the resignation effective. The pending vacancy may be filled in accordance with Article III, Section 6 of these Bylaws before the effective time, but the successor shall not take office until the effective time.

Section 6. VACANCIES. (a) Any vacancy on the Board of Directors for any cause other than an increase in the number of directors or the removal of a director in accordance with this Article III, Section 6 of these Bylaws shall be filled by a majority of the remaining directors, even if such majority is less than a quorum and (b) any vacancy in the number of directors created by an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the entire Board of Directors. Any individual so elected as director shall serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is elected and qualifies. A vacancy on the Board of Directors resulting from the removal of a director in accordance with this Article III, Section 6 of these Bylaws may be filled by the stockholders at an annual or special meeting of stockholders.

 

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Section 7. ANNUAL AND REGULAR MEETINGS. An annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be held immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders, no notice other than this Bylaw being necessary. In the event such meeting is not so held, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the Board of Directors.

Section 8. SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by or at the request of the President or by a majority of the directors then in office. The person or persons authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may fix any place as the place for holding any special meeting of the Board of Directors called by them. The Board of Directors may provide, by resolution, the time and place for the holding of special meetings of the Board of Directors without other notice than such resolution.

Section 9. NOTICE. Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be delivered personally or by telephone, electronic mail, facsimile transmission, United States mail or courier or, if to be delivered to an address outside of the United States, by an internationally recognized courier, to each director at his or her business or residence address. Notice by personal delivery, telephone, electronic mail or facsimile transmission shall be given at least 24 hours prior to the meeting. Notice by United States mail shall be given at least three days prior to the meeting. Notice by any courier shall be given at least two days prior to the meeting. Telephone notice shall be deemed to be given when the director or his or her agent is personally given such notice in a telephone call to which the director or his or her agent is a party. Electronic mail notice shall be deemed to be given upon transmission of the message to the electronic mail address given to the Corporation by the director. Facsimile transmission notice shall be deemed to be given upon completion of the transmission of the message to the number given to the Corporation by the director and receipt of a completed answer-back indicating receipt. Notice by United States mail shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail properly addressed, with postage thereon prepaid. Notice by any courier shall be deemed to be given when deposited with or delivered to such courier properly addressed. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any annual, regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be stated in the notice, unless specifically required by statute or these Bylaws.

Section 10. QUORUM. A majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum for transaction of business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, provided that if less than a majority of such directors are present at said meeting, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice, and provided further that if, pursuant to the Charter or these Bylaws, the vote of a majority of a particular group of directors is required for action, a quorum must also include a majority of such group. The directors present at a meeting which has been duly called and convened may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough directors to leave less than a quorum.

 

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Section 11. VOTING. The action of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the action of the Board of Directors, unless the concurrence of a greater proportion is required for such action by applicable statute, the Charter or these Bylaws. Any amendment to the Charter must be approved by a majority of the members of the Board of Directors then in office. If enough directors have withdrawn from a meeting to leave less than a quorum but the meeting is not adjourned, the action of the majority of the directors still present at such meeting shall be the action of the Board of Directors, unless the concurrence of a greater proportion is required for such action by applicable statute, the Charter or these Bylaws.

Section 12. ORGANIZATION. At each meeting of the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, if any, shall act as chairman of the meeting. In the absence of a Chairman of the Board, the President or in the absence of the President, a director chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall act as chairman of the meeting. The Secretary or, in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary, or in the absence of the Secretary and all Assistant Secretaries, a person appointed by the chairman of the meeting, shall act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 13. TELEPHONE MEETINGS. Directors may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment if all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Participation in a meeting by these means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

Section 14. WRITTEN CONSENT BY DIRECTORS. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting, if all of the members of the Board of Directors then in office consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and such writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors.

Section 15. COMPENSATION. Directors shall not receive any stated salary for their services as directors, but nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any directors from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.

ARTICLE IV

COMMITTEES

Section 1. NUMBER, TENURE AND QUALIFICATIONS. The Board of Directors may appoint from among its members an Executive Committee, an Audit Committee and other committees, composed of two or more directors, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.

Section 2. POWERS. The Board of Directors may delegate to committees appointed under Section 1 of this Article any of the powers of the Board of Directors, except as prohibited by law.

 

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Section 3. MEETINGS. Notice of committee meetings shall be given in the same manner as notice for special meetings of the Board of Directors. A majority of the members of the committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the committee. The act of a majority of the committee members present at a meeting shall be the act of such committee. The Board of Directors may designate a chairman of any committee, and such chairman or, in the absence of a chairman, any two members of any committee may fix the time and place of its meeting unless the Board shall otherwise provide. In the absence of any member of any such committee, the members thereof present at any meeting, whether or not they constitute a quorum, may appoint another director to act in the place of such absent member. Each committee shall keep minutes of its proceedings.

Section 4. TELEPHONE MEETINGS. Members of a committee of the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment if all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Participation in a meeting by these means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

Section 5. WRITTEN CONSENT BY COMMITTEES. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting, if all of the members of such committee of the Board of Directors consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and such writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of such committee of the Board of Directors.

Section 6. VACANCIES. Subject to the provisions hereof and of applicable law and any contract or agreement between the Corporation and its stockholders, the Board of Directors shall have the power at any time to change the membership of any committee, to fill all vacancies, to designate alternate members to replace any absent or disqualified member or to dissolve any such committee.

ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS. The officers of the Corporation shall include a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer and may include a Chairman of the Board, a Vice Chairman of the Board, one or more Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Secretaries and one or more Assistant Treasurers. In addition, the Board of Directors may from time to time elect such other officers with such powers and duties as they shall deem necessary or desirable. The officers of the Corporation shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors, except that the President may from time to time appoint one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers or other officers. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualifies or until his or her death, or his or her resignation or removal in the manner hereinafter provided. Any two or more offices except President and Vice President may be held by the same person. Election of an officer or agent shall not of itself create contract rights between the Corporation and such officer or agent.

 

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Section 2. REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION. Any officer or agent of the Corporation may be removed, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors if in its judgment the best interests of the Corporation would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed. Any officer of the Corporation may resign at any time by giving written notice of his or her resignation to the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the President or the Secretary. Any resignation shall take effect immediately upon its receipt or at such later time specified in the notice of resignation. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective unless otherwise stated in the resignation. Such resignation shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the Corporation.

Section 3. VACANCIES. A vacancy in any office may be filled by the Board of Directors for the balance of the term.

Section 4. CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD. The Board of Directors may designate a Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board shall preside over the meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he shall be present. The Chairman of the Board shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him or her by the Board of Directors.

Section 5. PRESIDENT. The President shall in general supervise and control all of the business and affairs of the Corporation. The President may execute any deed, mortgage, bond, contract or other instrument, except in cases where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors or by these Bylaws to some other officer or agent of the Corporation or shall be required by law to be otherwise executed; and in general shall perform all duties incident to the office of President and such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors from time to time.

Section 6. VICE PRESIDENTS. In the absence of the President or in the event of a vacancy in such office, the Vice President (or in the event there be more than one Vice President, the Vice Presidents in the order designated at the time of their election or, in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall perform the duties of the President and when so acting shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President; and shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to such Vice President by the President or by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may designate one or more Vice Presidents as Executive Vice President or as Vice President for particular areas of responsibility.

Section 7. SECRETARY. The Secretary shall (a) keep the minutes of the proceedings of the stockholders, the Board of Directors and committees of the Board of Directors in one or more books provided for that purpose; (b) see that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws or as required by law; (c) be custodian of the corporate records; (d) keep a register of the post office address of each stockholder which shall be furnished to the Secretary by such stockholder; (e) have general charge of the stock transfer books of the Corporation; and (f) in general perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him by the President or by the Board of Directors.

 

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Section 8. TREASURER. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the funds and securities of the Corporation and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and Board of Directors, at the regular meetings of the Board of Directors or whenever it may so require, an account of all his or her transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation.

Section 9. ASSISTANT SECRETARIES AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS. The Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers, in general, shall perform such duties as shall be assigned to them by the Secretary or Treasurer, respectively, or by the President or the Board of Directors.

Section 10. SALARIES. The salaries and other compensation of the officers shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors and no officer shall be prevented from receiving such salary or other compensation by reason of the fact that he is also a director.

ARTICLE VI

CONTRACTS, LOANS, CHECKS AND DEPOSITS

Section 1. CONTRACTS. The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or agent to enter into any contract or to execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Any agreement, deed, mortgage, lease or other document shall be valid and binding upon the Corporation when authorized or ratified by action of the Board of Directors and executed by an authorized person.

Section 2. CHECKS AND DRAFTS. All checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or agent of the Corporation in such manner as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.

Section 3. DEPOSITS. All funds of the Corporation not otherwise employed shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the Corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositories as the Board of Directors may designate.

 

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ARTICLE VII

STOCK

Section 1. CERTIFICATES. Except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, this Section shall not be interpreted to limit the authority of the Board of Directors to issue some or all of the shares of any or all of its classes or series without certificates. For certificated stock, each stockholder, upon written request to the Secretary, shall be entitled to a certificate or certificates which shall represent and certify the number of shares of each class of stock held by him in the Corporation. Each certificate shall be signed by the Chairman of the Board, the President or a Vice President and countersigned by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer. The signatures may be either manual or facsimile. Certificates shall be consecutively numbered. A certificate is valid and may be issued whether or not an officer who signed it is still an officer when it is issued. Each certificate representing shares which are restricted as to their transferability or voting powers, which are preferred or limited as to their dividends or as to their allocable portion of the assets upon liquidation or which are redeemable at the option of the Corporation, shall have a statement of such restriction, limitation, preference or redemption provision, or a summary thereof, plainly stated on the certificate. If the Corporation has authority to issue stock of more than one class, the certificate shall contain on the face or back a full statement or summary of the designations and any preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each class of stock and, if the Corporation is authorized to issue any preferred or special class in series, the differences in the relative rights and preferences between the shares of each series to the extent they have been set and the authority of the Board of Directors to set the relative rights and preferences of subsequent series. In lieu of such statement or summary, the certificate may state that the Corporation will furnish a full statement of such information to any stockholder upon request and without charge. If any class of stock is restricted by the Corporation as to transferability, the certificate shall contain a full statement of the restriction or state that the Corporation will furnish information about the restrictions to the stockholder on request and without charge.

Section 2. TRANSFERS. Shares of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these Bylaws. Transfers of shares of the Corporation shall be made on the books of the Corporation only by the holder of record thereof or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing. No transfer of shares shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing from and to whom transferred. Upon surrender to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of a stock certificate duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer, the Corporation shall issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books. The Corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share of stock as the holder in fact thereof and, accordingly, shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of the State of Maryland. Notwithstanding the foregoing, transfers of shares of any class of stock will be subject in all respects to the Charter and all of the terms and conditions contained therein.

 

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Section 3. REPLACEMENT CERTIFICATE. Any officer designated by the Board of Directors may direct a new certificate to be issued in place of any certificate previously issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing the issuance of a new certificate, an officer designated by the Board of Directors may, in his or her discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or the owner’s legal representative to advertise the same in such manner as he shall require and/or to give bond, with sufficient surety, to the Corporation to indemnify it against any loss or claim which may arise as a result of the issuance of a new certificate.

Section 4. CLOSING OF TRANSFER BOOKS OR FIXING OF RECORD DATE. The Board of Directors may set, in advance, a record date for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or determining stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or the allotment of any other rights, or in order to make a determination of stockholders for any other proper purpose. Such date, in any case, shall not be prior to the close of business on the day the record date is fixed and shall be not more than 90 days and, in the case of a meeting of stockholders, not less than ten days, before the date on which the meeting or particular action requiring such determination of stockholders of record is to be held or taken.

In lieu of fixing a record date, the Board of Directors may provide that the stock transfer books shall be closed for a stated period but not longer than 20 days. If the stock transfer books are closed for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders, such books shall be closed for at least ten days before the date of such meeting.

If no record date is fixed and the stock transfer books are not closed for the determination of stockholders, (a) the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day on which the notice of meeting is mailed or the 30th day before the meeting, whichever is the closer date to the meeting; and (b) the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive payment of a dividend or an allotment of any other rights shall be the close of business on the day on which the resolution of the directors, declaring the dividend or allotment of rights, is adopted.

When a determination of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders has been made as provided in this section, such determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof, except when (i) the determination has been made through the closing of the transfer books and the stated period of closing has expired or (ii) the meeting is adjourned to a date more than 120 days after the record date fixed for the original meeting, in either of which case a new record date shall be determined as set forth herein.

Section 5. FRACTIONAL STOCK; ISSUANCE OF UNITS. The Board of Directors may issue fractional stock or provide for the issuance of scrip, all on such terms and under such conditions as they may determine. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Charter or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors may issue units consisting of different securities of the Corporation. Any security issued in a unit shall have the same characteristics as any identical securities issued by the Corporation, except that the Board of Directors may provide that for a specified period securities of the Corporation issued in such unit may be transferred on the books of the Corporation only in such unit.

 

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ARTICLE VIII

ACCOUNTING YEAR

The Board of Directors shall have the power, from time to time, to fix the fiscal year of the Corporation by a duly adopted resolution.

ARTICLE IX

DISTRIBUTIONS

Section 1. AUTHORIZATION. Dividends and other distributions upon the stock of the Corporation may be authorized by the Board of Directors, subject to the provisions of applicable law and the Charter. Dividends and other distributions may be paid in cash, property or stock of the Corporation, subject to the provisions of applicable law and the Charter.

Section 2. RECORD DATE FOR DISTRIBUTIONS AND STOCK DIVIDENDS. For the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to receive a distribution by the Corporation (other than a distribution involving a purchase or redemption by the Corporation of any of its own shares) or a stock dividend, the Board of Directors may, at the time of declaring the distribution or stock dividend, set a record date no more than sixty (60) days prior to the date of the distribution or stock dividend. If no record date is fixed, the record date shall be the date on which the resolution of the Board of Directors authorizing the distribution or stock dividend is adopted.

Section 3. CONTINGENCIES. Before payment of any dividends or other distributions, there may be set aside out of any assets of the Corporation available for dividends or other distributions such sum or sums as the Board of Directors may from time to time, in its absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve fund for contingencies, for equalizing dividends or other distributions, for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall determine to be in the best interest of the Corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

ARTICLE XII

INDEMNIFICATION; ADVANCE OF EXPENSES; INSURANCE

Section 1. INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCE OF EXPENSES. To the maximum extent permitted by the laws of the State of Maryland in effect from time to time, the Corporation shall indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, shall pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to, (a) any individual who is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity or (b) any individual who, while a director of the Corporation and at the request of the Corporation, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of such corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other

 

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enterprise and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The Corporation may, with the approval of the Board of Directors, provide such indemnification and advance for expenses to a person who served a predecessor of the Corporation in any of the capacities described in (a) or (b) above and to any employee or agent of the Corporation or a predecessor of the Corporation. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article XII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

Section 2. INSURANCE. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation, or is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article XII.

Section 3. NONEXCLUSIVITY OF INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCEMENT OF EXPENSES. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article XII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the Charter, these Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons specified in Section 1 of this Article XII shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. The provisions of this Article XII shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 1 of this Article XII but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the MGCL, or otherwise.

Section 4. AMENDMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS. Neither the amendment nor repeal of this Article XII, nor the adoption or amendment of any other provision of the Bylaws or Charter inconsistent with this Article XII, shall apply to or affect in any respect the applicability of the preceding paragraph with respect to any act or failure to act which occurred prior to such amendment, repeal or adoption.

ARTICLE XIII

WAIVER OF NOTICE

Whenever any notice is required to be given pursuant to the Charter or these Bylaws or pursuant to applicable law, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to such notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to the giving of such notice. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any meeting need be set forth in the waiver of notice, unless specifically required by statute. The attendance of any person at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where such person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business on the ground that the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

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ARTICLE XIV

AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS

These Bylaws may be altered, amended, restated or repealed, in whole or in part, or new Bylaws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that notice of such alteration, amendment, restatement, repeal or adoption of new Bylaws (collectively, “amendments”) be contained in the notice of such meeting of the stockholders or Board of Directors, as the case may be. Any such amendment must be approved by either a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of the outstanding capital stock entitled to vote on the amendment or by a majority of the members of the Board of Directors then in office, as the case may be.

 

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