|FOREST CITY REALTY TRUST, INC. filed this Form 8-K on 10/30/2018|
Forest City Realty Trust, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Appendix - Definitions
FFO, a non-GAAP measure, along with net earnings, provides additional information about our core operations. While property dispositions, acquisitions or other factors impact net earnings in the short-term, we believe FFO presents a consistent view of the overall financial performance of our business from period-to-period since the core of our business is the recurring operations of our portfolio of real estate assets. Management believes that the exclusion of gains and losses from the sale of operating real estate assets from FFO allows investors and analysts to readily identify the operating results of the Company’s core assets and assists in comparing those operating results between periods. Implicit in historical cost accounting for real estate assets in accordance with GAAP is the assumption that the value of real estate assets diminishes ratably over time. Since real estate values have historically risen or fallen with market conditions, many real estate investors and analysts have considered presentations of operating results for real estate companies using historical cost accounting alone to be insufficient. Because FFO excludes depreciation and amortization of real estate assets and impairment of depreciable real estate, management believes that FFO, along with the required GAAP presentations, provides another measurement of the Company’s performance relative to its peers and an additional basis on which to make decisions involving operating, financing and investing activities than the required GAAP presentations alone would provide.
The majority of our peers in the publicly traded real estate industry report operations using FFO as defined by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”). FFO is defined by NAREIT as net earnings excluding the following items at our ownership: i) gain (loss) on full or partial disposition of rental properties, divisions and other investments (net of tax); ii) gains or losses on change in control of interests; iii) non-cash charges for real estate depreciation and amortization; iv) impairment of depreciable real estate (net of tax); and v) cumulative or retrospective effect of change in accounting principle (net of tax).
In addition to reporting FFO, we report Operating FFO, a non-GAAP measure, as an additional measure of our operating performance. We believe it is appropriate to adjust FFO for significant items driven by transactional activity and factors relating to the financial and real estate markets, rather than factors specific to the on-going operating performance of our properties. We use Operating FFO as an indicator of continuing operating results in planning and executing our business strategy. Operating FFO should not be considered to be an alternative to net earnings computed under GAAP as an indicator of our operating performance and may not be directly comparable to similarly-titled measures reported by other companies.
We define Operating FFO as FFO adjusted to exclude: i) impairment of non-depreciable real estate; ii) write-offs of abandoned development projects and demolition costs; iii) income recognized on state and federal historic and other tax credits; iv) gains or losses from extinguishment of debt; v) change in fair market value of nondesignated hedges; vi) the adjustment to recognize rental revenues and rental expense using the straight-line method; vii) participation payments to ground lessors on refinancing of our properties; viii) other transactional items; and ix) income taxes on FFO.
EBITDAre, a non-GAAP measure, is defined by NAREIT as net earnings (loss), excluding the following items: i) depreciation and amortization; ii) interest expense; iii) income tax expense (benefit); iv) impairment of depreciable real estate; and v) gains and losses on the disposition of depreciable real estate, including gains and losses on change in control of interests. We further adjust EBITDAre to arrive at EBITDAre at the company’s ownership (“EBITDAre attributable to Forest City Realty Trust, Inc. (“FCRT”)). During the three months ended March 31, 2018, we began disclosing EBITDAre attributable to FCRT as a replacement to EBITDA attributable to FCRT based on recently issued NAREIT guidance. Gains and losses on the disposition of depreciable real estate, including gains and losses on change in control of interests, and impairment of depreciable real estate are also excluded from net earnings (loss) to arrive at EBITDAre attributable to FCRT as a result. The disclosure of this metric provides a more widely known and understood measure of performance in the REIT industry. We use EBITDAre attributable to FCRT as the starting point in order to calculate Adjusted EBITDA as described below.
We define Adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP measure, as EBITDAre attributable to FCRT. adjusted to exclude: i) impairment of non-depreciable real estate; ii) gains or losses from extinguishment of debt; and iii) other transactional items, including organizational transformation and termination benefits. We believe EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and net debt to Adjusted EBITDA provide additional information in evaluating our credit and ability to service our debt obligations. Adjusted EBITDA is used by the chief operating decision maker and management to assess operating performance and resource allocations by segment and on a consolidated basis. Management believes Adjusted EBITDA gives the investment community a further understanding of the Company’s operating results, including the impact of general and administrative expenses and acquisition-related expenses, before the impact of investing and financing transactions and facilitates comparisons with competitors. However, Adjusted EBITDA should not be viewed as an alternative measure of the Company’s operating performance since it excludes financing costs as well as depreciation and amortization costs which are significant economic costs that could materially impact the Company’s results of operations and liquidity. Other REITs may use different methodologies for calculating Adjusted EBITDA and, accordingly, the Company’s Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other REITs.